Contoh Explanation Text About Tsunami Terbaru

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Contoh Explanation Text About Tsunami Terbaru – Explanation Text merupakan jenis teks yang menjelaskan proses terjadinya suatu kejadian atau fenomena, baik fenomena sosial, alam, ilmiah, atau pun budaya. Pasti kalian sudah pernah mendengar nama “Tsunami”. Apakah kalian pernah bertanya bagaimanakah Tsunami dapat terbentuk atau dapat terjadi? Berikut adalah penjelasan mengenai bagaimana Tsunami terbentuk dalam Explanation Text.

How Tsunami Happens

The word “tsunami” comes from the Japanese language meaning Ombak Besar (Tsu: port and Nami: wave). The definition of this natural disaster that many people know is tsunamis are natural disasters caused by rising sea waves to the mainland at high speed due to the earthquake centered beneath the ocean. The quake could have been caused by soil erosion, the plates were shifting, volcanic eruption and which experienced a meteor that crashed in the ocean. This usually happens when the tsunami magnitude earthquakes exceeds 7 on the Richter scale. Tsunami is quite dangerous, especially for those who live near the beach. With great power, Tsunami will sweep away everything in its path.

Tsunami is a tidal wave caused by an earthquake in the shallow seabed. The causes can be various, one of them for their interference (disturbance) caused by movement of plate resulting in earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, collision or fall of celestial objects, avalanches in the sea on a large scale. This results in a change in the seabed. Seafloor moves suddenly, accompanied by vertical displacement of particles for seabed fluctuates suddenly (usually because of shifting plates). Furthermore, what happens is the balance of sea water which is above the seabed had been disrupted, the result appears in the surface ocean energy flow can be fairly high waves and large and destructive if it gets to shore.

Physical characteristics are tsunami wave propagation time is longer than the seismic waves to travel the same distance. Besides, the tsunami waves also have a greater speed when traveling down the ocean and the energy released or absorbed is very small. High energy is what makes the current destructive tsunami waves reach the shore.

Other properties of the tsunami wave is that it turns the magnitude of this energy depends on the water depth. Imagine, the speed of this wave can reach 800-100 km / h in deep seas and sufaces. But the height of tsunami waves in the deep ocean only reached 30-60 cm, and the large wavelength is hundreds of kilometers. So it is very hard to be differentiated from ordinary ocean waves. It proves to not be felt by ships that were stopped in the middle of the ocean. The movement of tsunamis occurs in all parts of the water particles, ranging from below the seabed up to the surface.

When the tsunami waves reached the surface of the ocean, wave velocity decreases while energy remains large, then the wave height increases dramatically. Besides, the energy is still able to wash away objects in its path. Just imagine, a height of 70 cm tsunami wave can still wash away people.


When the plate moves up on the ocean, the water will normally plug in coast area t cause flood that usually occurs in the area before the tsunami waves come to crash it. Vice versa, if the oceanic plate moves down (shifting plates), tsunami usually occurs half the time before the tsunami waves come to the coast. So what happens on the surface of the sea water is seawater on the beach is at low tide, there can even recede more than 800 m away from the beach. People usually become even curious and do not know the dangers that threaten further, remains around the coast. Usually this moment is also used by local fishermen to catch fish that are scattered because of the low tide.

Tsunami wave can be approximated by the incident transverse wave propagation. Wave energy is a function of the height / depth and fast propagation. While the height of the wave itself is affected by the wavelength. The length of enormous tsunami waves are about hundreds of kilometers and are as shallow waves. Shallow wave itself is a water wave when the ratio of the depth to the wavelength is smaller than 0.05.

Well magnitude shallow wave propagation speed can be determined by:

v = sqrt (g * d)

with g is the acceleration due to gravity and d is the depth of water. So that at a depth of about 10 km in the Indian Ocean, a tsunami wave will have an initial velocity of about 300 m / s or 1000 km / h. Along with reduced depth, the tsunami wave propagation speed will be reduced.

What happens to the energy when current wave of tsunami waves enter shallower region? It turns out very little reduction of wave energy and wave energy can even be said to be fixed. This is in accordance with the principle of the rate of energy loss (energy loss rate) on a traveling wave is inversely proportional to its wavelength. So in conclusion with large wavelength (e.g. tsunami wave), it will be less energy that is lost, so that it can be said as before that the tsunami wave energy is fixed / constant.

With the constant energy and a decrease in the speed of tsunami waves as reduction in water depth will impact the increase of wave height in the ocean. In fact, according to scientists, if the tsunami wave velocity is 300 m / s, then the wave height will be increased by 30 m. It is remarkable high tsunami wave.

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